Toulmin’s Model Of Argumentation

Toulmin model of argumentation was developed by the Britisher philosopher, writer and professor Stephen Toulmin. It is basically a template design by Toulmin to contend your claim. Model suggest you to inspect and collect some data to make your argument splendid. So, use of Toulmin model provide us a well constructed rational argument that is supported with evidence and sound reasoning. Therefore, it is practise for creating research papers, news articles and different other writings.

Toulmin Model completes with six elements. Among them Claim, Grounds(data) and Warrant are central while Backing, Reservation and Qualifier are other subsidiary features of Toulmin’s model. Let’s start brief explanation of each component of Toulmin’s Model Of Argumentation:


Claim is the point or an assertion than an arguer(Let’s suppose you) wants to convince a listener or readers. Claim is basically an idea, point or thesis that you want to persuade or try others to accept it.

For example: If i tell “Nep Stuff is an english blog and magazine from Nepal.” then it is a claim that i want listener to believe me.

Claim is mainly based on facts, policy, definition and value.


Grounds or data are the evidence or hard facts that an arguer present to claim his/her arguments.
For example: Nep Stuff is an english blog from Nepal because Nep Stuff was founded by Bimal Raj Paudel who is originally from Nepal.

Therefore, different statistics, reports, physical evidence, experts opinion and logical reasonings are the sources of data which supports the claim.


A warrant links the data and other grounds to a claim. Basically it assures your data decent and helps your claim trustworthy and convincing.

For example: Nep Stuffs writes the content mostly related to Nepal.


Backing is other supportive materials or logics or examples that supports warrant.

For example: Nep Stuff was featured as Newspaper magazine in the wikipedia.


Qualifier states how sure the arguer is about his/her claim. It is the last and final point that arguer present to the readers or listener during the argumentation.

For example: Most magazines that write ups articles based on one nation are presumably from same nation.


Rebuttal means acknowledging or presenting other possible valid statements. Advocation your ideas without a break may present you as a hypocrite among readers or listeners. So you mustn’t appear as bias writer or speaker.

For example: Nep Stuff could be an international magazine since it post blog related to international market.

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